Two major measurements are being considered, one is about image position and the other is about image intensity. For the former, new techniques have been developed to compensate for both radial and tangential distortions in a camera lens and to determine the spatial relationships between the camera and the 3-D world. The experiments have shown that the distortion compensation leads to a significant improvement in accuracy. A new normalized measurement has been introduced that can be used to objectively evaluate and compare the accuracies of various calibration techniques, despite the parameter differences among the camera systems. Intensity calibration is necessary because of the peripheral attenuation in images due to optical lens, whose effect typically results in darker corners in images. We have developped a model for such pheriphral attenuation. An intensity calibration method has also been developed to compensate the intensity pheriphral attenuation.